Testing of three diﬀerent PVDF membranes in membrane assistedcrystallization process: Inﬂuence of me
Testing of three diﬀerent PVDF membranes in membrane assistedcrystallization process: Inﬂuence of membrane structural-properties on process performance
Zhaoliang Cuia,c,d, Xue Lia, Yongxing Zhanga, Zhaohui Wanga,c, Annarosa Gugliuzzab, Francesca Militanob, Enrico Driolib, Francesca Macedoniob,⁎
Keywords: Membrane crystallization PVDF membrane Membrane structural characteristics
Throughout the world an intensiﬁed use of desalination for reducing current and future water scarcity is observed. Despite the enormous beneﬁts of desalination processes, improvements are still required in terms of lower desalted water cost, higher productivity, better water quality and enhanced eco-sustainability of the desalination process. Environmentally sensitive concentrate management is today recognized as a signiﬁcant hurdle to extensive implementation of desalination technologies. Membrane assisted crystallization (MCr) oﬀers asuitablesolutionforredesigning desalinationprocessthrough thetreatment ofbrinestreamsfortheproduction of salts and water. In this work, three diﬀerent Hyﬂon/polyvinylidene ﬂuoride (PVDF) composite membranes were tested in MCr operations. The coating of PVDF membranes with Hyﬂon allowed increasing membrane surface hydrophobicity. The latter is the membrane essential characteristic when MCr is implemented according direct contact membrane distillation conﬁguration like in the present work. The aim was to analyze the
MCr performance in terms of membrane chemical - physical properties and process operating conditions.